Adenomyosis: Causes & Symptoms

by Meenakshi Nagdeve last updated -

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Adenomyosis is a particularly annoying, painful, and potentially dangerous condition that primarily affects women that are between the ages of 35 and 50.

What is Adenomyosis?

In adenomyosis, the endometrial tissue, which is the inner lining of the uterus, can begin to expand and grow into the myometrium, which is the uterine muscle. During menstruation, this tissue bleeds along with the uterine lining, resulting in clots in the body called adenomyoma. These clots are often mistaken for fibroids.



The exact cause of adenomyosis is unknown but it is said to be caused by a variety of factors like:

  • Invasive tissue growth: Adenomyosis could result from an invasion of the endometrial cells from the lining of the uterus into the uterine muscle. This could occur during a surgical procedure like a cesarean section (C-section).
  • Developmental origins: Others speculate the beginnings of the condition lie in the deposition of the endometrial tissue within the uterine muscle when a fetus first forms within the uterus.
  • Uterine inflammation related to childbirth: Postpartum, there could be an inflammation of the uterine lining that might result in the breakdown of the cells lining the uterus.
  • Stem cells: Bone marrow stem cells may also invade the uterine muscle to cause this condition.


These clots and the additional bleeding can cause:

  • Extremely uncomfortable menses
  • Heavy and long menses
  • Inflammation of the uterus
  • General discomfort

Some of the other symptoms of adenomyosis include:

  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Passing of blood clots during menstruation
  • Bleeding in between periods
  • Severe cramps
  • Abdomen might feel bulky or tender
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