Dementia: Types, Causes & Symptoms

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Dementia is a broad term comprising a number of neurocognitive impairments, most famously Alzheimer’s disease. Let’s understand the types, causes, and symptoms of this complex condition.

What is Dementia?

Essentially, dementia refers to the brain’s gradual decline in functionality and ability to remember. This is a gradual, degrading disease, and typically renders the sufferer unable to take care of themselves in the later stages.


Some of the other conditions associated with this type of cognitive decline include:

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Vascular
  • Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)
  • Mixed
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Frontotemporal
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
  • Normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • Huntington’s disease
  • Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome


This condition is primarily caused due to damaged brain cells, there are also some other causes like:

  • Depression
  • Marital status of widowed
  • Lower BMI
  • Less sleep at mid-life
  • Medication side effects
  • Too much sitting
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol
  • Thyroid imbalances
  • Vitamin deficiencies


Depending on the type, the symptoms can vary greatly. The general symptoms impaired in the core cognitive functions include:

  • Short- and long-term memory
  • Communication and language
  • Behavioral changes
  • Ability to concentrate
  • Logic and reasoning
  • Sensory perception
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