involve various options, including procedures, procedures, insemination (IUI), in vitro (IVF), & more.
is defined by “the failure to achieve a successful after 12 months or more of appropriate, timed, and unprotected intercourse or donor insemination”. Infertility is a complex and affects both and , with an important psychologic, economic, demographic, and medical implications. Although there are no reliable figures for global prevalence of infertility, it is estimated that fertility problems affect 8-12% of worldwide. In the UK, the most frequent cause of infertility is ovulatory disorders (25%), tubal damage (20%), male factors causing infertility (30%), and or disorders (10%). In about 25% of the cases, the reason for infertility stays .
Treatments for Infertility
Fertility treatment is a medical treatment to enhance the ability to produce . There exist many treatment options for couples who suffer from infertility problems, but which one is the one to choose depends on the cause. Besides, the question in whom appears the problem is also important since there are different fertility treatments options for both men and women.
Fertility Treatments for Women
When a woman is unable to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months, she probably needs a fertility treatment. About 10% of women, between 15 and 44 years of age, suffer from infertility.
To manage infertility in women,are often the first choice for treatment. Ovulation disorders are caused by the pituitary failure and can be treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone or gonadotrophins with luteinizing hormone to induce ovulation.
Polycystic ovary syndrome ( ) is a group of disorders affecting 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. There exist many treatment options for women with PCOS, but number one is a change in the (in women with a of 30 or over). Otherwise, clomifene , metformin or a combination are preferred medications.
Fertility Treatments for Men
Infertility in men refers to a male’s inability to make a . About 1% of men are sterile, and in 20% of men, the quality is below the threshold. A wide range of problems can cause men infertility, but there exist as many fertility treatments as well.
Treatment withgonadotrophin (HCG) and human gonadotrophin (HMG) increases sperm counts. Meanwhile, gonadotrophin treatment may improve fertility in men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
Some studies found a beneficial effect on vitamin E. Both selenium supplementations and have been reported to improve sperm . , therefore, may be a good option for fertility treatment. Furthermore, alpha , mast- blockers, , and may improve the semen density, semen parameters, sperm motility, pregnancy rates, and immunological male infertility.parameters in infertile men by
However, not every treatment option has shown to improve male fertility. Two Randomized Controlled male factor fertility problems did not show a significant difference in pregnancy rates between gonadotrophin treatment compared with or no treatment in couples with idiopathic male infertility. Treatment with androgens, kinin-enhancing , bromocriptine, and anti-oestrogens also appear to not have any beneficial effect in male fertility treatment.investigating gonadotrophin therapy for idiopathic
The condition azoospermia means there is no sperm present in the ejaculate (semen). Surgical treatment such as epididymovasostomy with a postinfective caudal block, surgery for ejaculatory duct the overall pregnancy rate in couples where the male has an ejaculatory obstruction., and postinfective vasal blocks may improve the patency and pregnancy rates. Also, transurethral resection of ejaculatory ducts improves semen quality and increases
Besides surgery treatment for azoospermia, there is also therapy available for varicoceles. A varicocele is an abnormal improvement in pregnancy rates after this therapy.in the scrotum, that occurs when the valves within the veins do not properly. However, surgery to varicoceles is available, most of the studies show no
IUI, IVF, and ICSI Treatments
Intrauterine insemination (IUI): Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a form of treatment where sperm is inserted into the uterine with unexplained infertility, , male factor infertility or disability.around the time of ovulation. IUI has been used in women
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the fertilization of eggs with sperm outside the . Generally, IVF is used when other treatments, such as ovulation therapy, treatment of endometriosis, tubal , severe male factor infertility, among others, have failed. The success of an IVF treatment depends on the ability to collect an adequate number of .
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): In Intracytoplasmic sperm
ICSI improves fertilization rates compared to IVF alone, but once fertilization is performed the pregnancy rate is not better than with IVF.
Other options for couples who cannot conceive: If the above-stated treatment options for couples who have troubledo not work, or when a couple does not want to start a medical treatment, other options are available. For example, donor sperm, donor eggs, surrogacy, or donor embryos. Having said all of the above, one can always go for an adoption.