11 Incredible Benefits of Potatoes

by Meenakshi Nagdeve last updated - Medically reviewed by Rebecca Zinger (RD, LD)

Potatoes are one of the most common and important food sources on the planet, and they contain a wealth of benefits that make them all the more staple in diets across the world. These health benefits include their ability to improve digestion, reduce cholesterol levels, boost heart health, and protect from polyps. They strengthen the immune system, reduce signs of aging, protect the skin, increase circulation, reduce blood pressure, maintain fluid balance, and reduce insomnia.

What are Potatoes?

The term potato can refer to either the plant or the entire tuber, which is rather shapeless, in most varieties. Its scientific name is Solanum tuberosum and it is a member of the nightshade family. These vegetables are native to South America, most likely originating in the Andes across Peru and Bolivia. The Inca Indians are believed to be the first ones to cultivate potatoes in their region around 8000 BC to 5000 BC. It was taken out of the continent by the Spanish and the Irish in the 1500s. [1] [2]

Children around the world often refuse to eat vegetables but they’re more likely to choose potatoes. They are on almost every major continental diet in some form and they can be prepared in dozens of ways, including baked, fried, sliced, mashed, and many more.

Wild potatoes still grow in some parts of the Americas, but they got introduced to other parts of the world only 400-500 years ago. These vegetables now dominate the world as the 4th largest food crop, and more than 1/3rd of the world’s potatoes are actually now grown in China and India, where they represent an essential part of their cuisine, as well as the cuisine of many of their neighboring countries.

Today, it’s difficult to imagine a diet without potatoesThey have somehow become one of the most popular and recognized foods on the planet. Potato lovers and even those who don’t like them will be equally delighted to know that potatoes have nutritional components that go far beyond carbohydrates and calories, and they can be an extremely beneficial addition to any dietary plan.

Let’s explore the nutrition facts of these widely accepted vegetables, before we dive into knowing the health benefits of this world-famous vegetable!

Potatoes Nutrition Facts

The reason potatoes have spread across the globe so quickly and have been so widely accepted is because they are a storehouse of energy and nutrition, including vitamins, minerals, and essential organic compounds. [3]

Mineral Content: If you eat potatoes regularly, you ensure a good supply of water and ions in your body. This is because they are rich in potassium. The concentration is highest in the skin of the vegetable and just beneath it. So, eating the potato with its skin is always beneficial. They also contain calcium, iron, and phosphorus. [4]

Vitamin Content: Potatoes are known for the large amounts of vitamin C present in them. Typically, a 100 gm serving will contain about 17 mg of vitamin C. In addition to this, they also contain vitamins A and B (source: USDA FoodData Central). [5]

Water Content: Water accounts for about 70-80 percent of their weight. So the belief that you gain weight by eating potatoes is not exactly true. However, if your potato servings contain large quantities of buttersour cream, or cheesethen you are bound to gain weight. It is also recommended that you bake a potato versus frying it. 

A pan filled with boiled potatoes on a grey background

Boiled potatoes in a pan Photo Credit: Shutterstock

Starch Content: Potatoes contain about 17% starch and they are one of the best natural sources. However, you should avoid eating sprouted potatoes as sprouting leads to the conversion of starch into sugarSprouted potatoes could also contain toxins and generally have lower nutrient content. If you want to prevent it from sprouting, it is recommended to keep them in a cool, dry place with minimal exposure to light.

Health Benefits of Potatoes

Health benefits of potatoes include the following:

Nutrition Facts

Potatoes, boiled, cooked in skin, flesh, without salt
Serving Size :
Water [g]76.98
Energy 87
Energy [kJ]364
Protein [g]1.87
Total lipid (fat) [g]0.1
Ash [g]0.92
Carbohydrate, by difference [g]20.13
Fiber, total dietary [g]1.8
Sugars, total including NLEA [g]0.91
Sucrose [g]0.19
Glucose (dextrose) [g]0.34
Fructose [g]0.29
Calcium, Ca [mg]5
Iron, Fe [mg]0.31
Magnesium, Mg [mg]22
Phosphorus, P [mg]44
Potassium, K [mg]379
Sodium, Na [mg]4
Zinc, Zn [mg]0.3
Copper, Cu [mg]0.19
Manganese, Mn [mg]0.14
Selenium, Se [µg]0.3
Fluoride, F [µg]49.4
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid [mg]13
Thiamin [mg]0.11
Riboflavin [mg]0.02
Niacin [mg]1.44
Pantothenic acid [mg]0.52
Vitamin B-6 [mg]0.3
Folate, total [µg]10
Folate, food [µg]10
Folate, DFE [µg]10
Choline, total [mg]13.5
Betaine [mg]0.2
Carotene, beta [µg]2
Vitamin A, IU [IU]3
Lutein + zeaxanthin [µg]10
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) [mg]0.01
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) [µg]2.2
Fatty acids, total saturated [g]0.03
10:0 [g]0
12:0 [g]0
14:0 [g]0
16:0 [g]0.02
18:0 [g]0
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated [g]0
16:1 [g]0
18:1 [g]0
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated [g]0.04
18:2 [g]0.03
18:3 [g]0.01
Tryptophan [g]0.03
Threonine [g]0.07
Isoleucine [g]0.08
Leucine [g]0.11
Lysine [g]0.11
Methionine [g]0.03
Cystine [g]0.02
Phenylalanine [g]0.08
Tyrosine [g]0.07
Valine [g]0.11
Arginine [g]0.09
Histidine [g]0.04
Alanine [g]0.06
Aspartic acid [g]0.46
Glutamic acid [g]0.31
Glycine [g]0.06
Proline [g]0.07
Serine [g]0.08
Sources include : USDA [6]

Promote Weight Gain

Potatoes are primarily made of carbohydrates and contain protein and are low on fats, according to a study published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. When they team up with foods like cheese, butter or cream, it makes them an ideal diet for people who want to put on weight. The vitamin content includes vitamin C and B-complex, which also help in the proper absorption of carbohydrates. That is one of the reasons that potatoes make up a large part of the diet of sumo wrestlers, as well as many other athletes who need large energy reserves in order to compete. [7]

Easy to Digest

Since potatoes predominantly contain carbohydrates, they are easy to digest and they also facilitate digestion. This property makes them a good diet for babies or for those who cannot digest hard food, but need energy. However, remember that eating too many of them on a regular basis may cause acidity over time. [8]

High in Fiber

Potatoes also contain a considerable amount of fiber or roughage. This stimulates peristaltic motion and increases secretion of gastric juices, which eases digestion and prevents conditions like constipation. The vegetable may also protect the body from serious conditions like colorectal cancer due to its high fiber content. Fiber is also connected with pushing cholesterol out of the arteries and blood vessels, thereby improving heart health. [9]

Skin Care

Vitamins C and B-complex, as well as minerals like potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc, are good for the skin. Apart from that, the pulp obtained from crushed raw potatoes, when mixed with honey, can work well in skin and face packs. This even helps with pimples and spots on the skin. Again, this pulp, if applied externally on burns, provides quick relief and faster healing. Smashed potatoes and even water in which they have been washed are very good for softening rough skin, especially around the elbows. [10]

Treat Scurvy

A study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry found that potatoes had high levels of vitamin C and carotenoid. Scurvy is a condition caused by the deficiency of vitamin C. A 2012 paper published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology highlights that potatoes might have been one of the primary sources of vitamin C in Ireland around the time of the Irish potato famine. After studying the deaths during this time, the researchers found that scurvy was a widespread disease around the region. [11] [12]

Reduce Inflammation

Potatoes are very effective in reducing inflammation, both internal and external, according to a research paper. Since they are soft, easily digested, and have a lot of vitamin C (a very good antioxidant that repairs tissue wear and tear), potassium, and vitamin B6, they can relieve any inflammation in the intestines and the digestive system. They are a very good dietary element for those who have mouth ulcers as well. Therefore, people who suffer from arthritis and gout can use potatoes for their anti-inflammatory impact. However, this humble vegetable can cause weight gain, which exacerbates these conditions, and are commonly eaten with meat and other rich foods that make gout worse, a fine balance must be struck. [13]

Lower Blood Pressure

High blood pressure can occur for a number of reasons including diabetes, stress, being overweight or obese, indigestion, and poor dietary choices. Potatoes can alleviate multiple possible causes and can be used to relieve high blood pressure due to stress. Also, the fiber present in them is helpful in lowering cholesterol. Furthermore, the potassium found in potatoes (46% of daily requirement per serving) lowers blood pressure since it functions as a vasodilator. [14] [15]

Better Brain Health

Proper functioning of the brain depends largely on the glucose level, oxygen supply, various components of the vitamin-B complex, and certain hormones, amino acids and fatty acids like omega-3. Potatoes cater to almost all the needs mentioned above. They are high in carbohydrates, and thereby promote a good level of glucose in the blood in those without type 2 diabetes mellitus. This prevents the brain from letting fatigue creep in and it keeps your cognitive activity and performance high. Next, the brain needs oxygen, which is carried by the hemoglobin in the blood; its main constituent is iron. [16]

Potatoes contain iron as well. Therefore, they help deliver oxygen to the brain. There are a wide variety of vitamins and minerals in potatoes that positively affect the function of the brain, including phosphorus, zinc, and the B complex vitamins. The vasodilating properties of potassium have also been connected to the stimulation of brain function due to increased blood flow to it.

Prevent Heart Diseases

Apart from the vitamins (B-complex and C), minerals, and roughage, potatoes also contain certain substances called carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Carotenoids are beneficial for heart health and the functioning of other internal organs. Again, since potatoes raise the glucose level in the blood and their over-consumption may cause obesity, which puts pressure on your heart, you must be careful about how often you use potatoes for this health benefit. This is not recommended for obese people or someone with diabetes. [17]

Treat Diarrhea

Potatoes are an excellent component of an energy-rich diet for those suffering from diarrhea since they are easy to digest and contain mild roughage. However, eating too much of it can cause diarrhea due to the excessive ingestion of starch. [18]

Does Potato Reduce the Risk of Cancer?

Certain types of potatoes, particularly red and russet ones, contain high levels of flavonoid antioxidants and vitamin A, like zeaxanthin and carotenes, and they can possibly protect you against many types of cancer. Also, a study at the Agricultural Research has shown that potatoes contain a compound called quercetin, which has been proven to have anti-cancer and anti-tumor properties. [19]

Another animal study suggests that anthocyanin-rich purple potatoes may demonstrate anticancer and anti-inflammatory potential. More scientific evidence and research are needed to prove the benefit. [20]

However, a recent study published in Nutrition and Cancer suggests that a high intake of potato may increase the risk of colorectal cancer and colon cancer. [21]

Word of Caution

  • Green potatoes are often poisonous, and so are potato leaves and fruits, as they contain alkaloids like solanine, chaconine, and arsenic. An overdose of those chemicals could easily prove fatal.
  • The glycemic index of the vegetable is very high (above 80), so people who are obese, trying to lose weight, or trying to manage diabetes should avoid eating potatoes. If eaten, potatoes are healthier when baked, rather than fried.
  • It is also highly recommended that those who have chronic kidney disease, or end-stage renal disease and are receiving dialysis, do not consume any potatoes or sources of potatoes.

Tips to Reduce Loss of Nutrients in Potato

  • Avoid peeling the potatoes before cooking them. The outer shell provides good protection against nutritional loss during the cooking process. The protein and mineral content beneath the skin is very high, so if you cook them after peeling them, most of these proteins and minerals will be lost.
  • When you boil potatoes, first heat the water to its boiling point and then add them. This will reduce cooking time and help you maintain the vitamin C content.
  • Minimize frying of potatoes, as 75% of vitamin C is lost during frying. You can use other cooking methods such as baking, using an air fryer, or steam cooking.

On a delicious note, have you ever tried barbecue roasted potatoes? Go and grab some!

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About the Author

Meenakshi Nagdeve, Co-Founder, Organic Facts is a health and wellness enthusiast and is responsible for managing it. She has completed the Nutrition And Healthy Living Cornell Certificate Program, Cornell University, US. She holds a Post Graduate Diploma in Management from IIM Bangalore and B. Tech in Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science from IIT Bombay. Prior to this, she worked for a few years in IT and Financial services. An ardent follower of naturopathy, she believes in healing with foods. In her free time, she loves to travel and taste different types of teas.

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