Organic Facts is your source for unbiased and reliable information on organic and healthy food. We make it easy for you to find information on all aspects of wellness and clean living. At Organic Facts, you can find out about the latest foods that are trending in the international space as well as ancient spices that have been used medicinally for centuries. We know how important it is to arm people with the right information on health not just for themselves, but also for their families and pets.
Our mission to make it easy for you to find out more about natural healing, exercising and fitness, about parenting, and about medical conditions that may affect your loved ones.
We, at Organic Facts, take our responsibility of ensuring accurate and trustworthy health and medical information for our users very seriously. Our Medical Experts team comprises doctors, registered dietitians, nurses, public health experts, licensed alternative medicine practitioners, and registered yoga teachers who have established qualifications and credentials in their respective fields. Their medical expertise and reviews help us keep our content current, evidence-based, and reliable. They work closely with our editorial team to review and add relevant information as required. We are proud of our medical experts team that spans the world.
We strive to be your trusted resource that you can rely on for health information for yourself and your loved ones.
Dr. Mahesh Gopasetty (MBBS, MS, MRCS)
Dr. Mahesh Gopasetty is a renowned liver transplant surgeon at Fortis Hospitals in Bengaluru, India with 15 years of transplantation experience. He did his post-graduate degree in General Surgery from Kettering General Hospital NHS Trust in the UK. After this, he did his fellowship in multi-organ transplantation from the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, US. Dr. Gopasetty also has contributed to research articles and case reports on surgery published in peer-reviewed international journals in the National Institutes of Health, US.
Dr. Deepak Parrakal (MS, MBBS)
Dr. Deepak Parakkal, MBBS, MS, is a board-certified gastroenterologist and Assistant Professor of Medicine at Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, USA. He completed his fellowships in gastroenterology and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, USA. His research has focused on refining non-invasive tools to assess disease activity and response to therapy in IBD using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and multi-omics biomarker discovery approaches.
Dr. Abhijit Hazra (MBBS, DNB)
Dr. Abhijit Kumar Hazra, MBBS, DNB, is a senior consultant neurosurgeon at Apollo Main Hospital, Chennai. He completed his fellowship in cerebrovascular surgery at the Tokyo Medical University in the year 2010. Dr. Hazra's areas of interest include endoscopic skull base surgery, full endoscopic trans-foraminal interlaminar lumbar spine surgery, and cerebrovascular surgery.
Ossie Sharon (MS, RD)
Ossie Sharon, MS, RD is a clinical dietitian specializing in preventive and personalized nutrition, with over 20 years of experience in a variety of healthcare and research settings, including holistic nutrition and nutrigenomics. Ossie has a Master’s degree in Clinical Nutrition from Case Western Reserve University, and completed her dietetic internship at the Veterans Affairs and Mount Zion Centers, Cleveland Ohio.
Vanessa Voltolina (MS, RD)
Vanessa Voltolina, MS, RD is a registered dietitian nutritionist whose work focuses in healthy eating, weight loss and diets for chronic diseases. She has her master's degree in clinical nutrition from New York University. In her spare time, she loves ice skating, cooking and playing with her dog.
Kate Bruno (RD, CPT)
Kate Bruno, RD, CPT, specializes in treating all types of eating/exercise disorders, including body image, weight, and digestive issues. As a Registered Dietitian and Certified Personal Trainer, she is passionate about helping patients find healing and recovery and offers community education/wellness, & personalized fitness training. She is also a certified LEAP therapist(food sensitivity) and works with patients who have complex health issues which are often difficult to diagnose.
Zemira Barnes (MS)
Zemira Barnes, MS received her Bachelor's in Dietetics and Masters in Food and Nutritional Sciences from Tuskegee University. She has a special interest in preventative nutrition. Her most recent experience has been as a Women, Infants, and Children Nutritionist with the Georgia Department of Public Health, US.
Helen Fosam (PhD, Physiology)
Helen Fosam, PhD (Physiology), is a freelance medical writer and owner of The Edge Medical Writing, LLC. She focuses on CME needs assessments, reporting for conferences and advisory board meetings, manuscript and report writing, and pharmaceutical product training materials.
Komal Singh (MS, Nutrition)
Komal Singh has a Master's of Science in Foods, Nutrition, and Dietetics. She has a vast experience in the field of Nutrition counseling, with over 15 years of experience in Dubai. She is now based in Houston, USA. Her interest lies in engaging individuals in a holistic approach to health and nutrition, by communicating nutritional science in a meaningful, achievable and simple manner.
Emily Wood (RD CDN)
Rebecca Zinger (RD, LD)
Rebecca Zinger is a Registered Dietitian currently working inpatient at Emory Decatur Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia (US). A Nashville native, she earned her undergraduate degree from The University of Tennessee, Knoxville and did her dietetic internship at Atlanta Medical Center. She enjoys practicing, researching, and writing about the latest information in dietary health.
Wafa Reda (MS, RDN)
Wafa Jammal Reda, MS, RDN is a registered dietician, she is passionate about writing articles on health and nutrition to promote healthier eating habits. She has a master of science in clinical nutrition from the American University of Beirut. She has over 10 years of experience in nutrition counseling and education. Currently, she is working for the women, infant, child, (WIC) program in Michigan. In her spare time, she loves to cook and swim.
Dr. Lindsey Elmore
Dr. Lindsey Elmore has a distinguished background in pharmacy practice. She has a degree in chemistry from the University of Alabama, Birmingham and a Doctor of Pharmacy from the University of California, San Francisco. She is a board-certified pharmacotherapy specialist, a speaker, author, and owner of her own integrative wellness company. She shares her passion for natural wellness solutions on stages around the world, has spoken on these topics on 5 continents, and reaches countless others on her viral Facebook Lives.
Sarah Pledger (M.S., R.D.)
Sarah is a registered dietitian and lifelong athlete. She played division 1 softball before qualifying for and running the Boston Marathon, racing for the A&M triathlon team, competing on ESPN2 at the Battlefrog Collegiate Championships and now racing Spartan Elite obstacle course races. Her business PledgeTraining coaches others through exercise programming and nutrition to achieve their own personal goal and to overcome their own obstacles daily.
Emily Borth is an avid hiker and Registered Dietitian who is deeply passionate about sustainability, nutrition, simple living, travel, minimalism, and environmental conservation. In addition to her RD credential, she also holds a Bachelor of Science in Nutrition and Anthropology, a Master of Science in Nutrition, and a certificate of training in adult weight management.
Dr Kacy Borba Spann
Dr. Kacy L Borba Spann, of Quercus Natural Health, is a naturopathic doctor and licensed acupuncturist practicing adjunctive healthcare at Portland Family Health in the Woodstock neighborhood of Portland, Oregon, US. She graduated from the National University of Natural Medicine, Portland. She is creative and flexible in her approach to care using many modalities, including: classical Chinese acupuncture, non-insertive Japanese acupuncture for pediatric patients, spinal manipulations, fire and bleeding cupping, post-surgical recovery and scar therapy, prolotherapy, bodywork (including craniosacral, myofascial release, shiatsu and channel work), IM injections and nasal-specifics.
Dr. Brent Wells
Dr. Brent Wells is an Anchorage Chiropractor who believes in treating his patients the way he would want to be treated. Born and raised in Southern California, Dr. Wells received his Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Nevada and his Doctor of Chiropractic Medicine degree from Western States Chiropractic College. He, his wife Coni, and their three children live in and enjoy the great outdoors in Alaska.
Scott Johnson (AMP, CEEOS, CCMA, CPC)
TJ Hom is a certified essential oil specialist and writer with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English. She is working on her aromatherapy certification through the Aromahead Institute and is a member of the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA). When not working with essential oils, TJ writes for Untangled Connections (a resource website and blog for trauma survivors) under a pen name and works for as an operations analyst for a software company. Her hobbies include reading, cooking, and spending time in nature. You can learn more about TJ through her LinkedIn profile and website: Scent Reflections.
Dr. Maneka Vig (BDS)
Dr. Maneka Vig, Bachelor of Dental Surgery, is a certified dental surgeon from Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, India with 8 years of experience. Spearheaded the operations for a branch of one of India’s largest dental chains. She is passionate about evidence-based medical writing and its practical applications.
Janine Kelbach (RNC-OB)
Janine Kelbach, Registered Nurse Certified in Inpatient Obstetrics (RNC-OB), is a freelance writer and owner of www.WriteRN.net, and she is also the Operations Manager for the Healthcare Marketing Network. Janine has been an RN since 2006, specializing in labor and delivery, and she still works part-time at a hospital. She ventured into writing in 2012. She, her husband, and her two boys reside in Cleveland, Ohio.
Sherllie Kartika (MS, RD)
Sherllie Kartika is a certified Registered Dietitian with a Master's Degree in Nutrition and Dietetics from Loma Linda University. She currently resides in the United States and is extremely passionate about empowering clients with simple personalized nutrition care that will help enhance their quality of lives.
Ravleen Sakaria (MS, RD)
Ravleen Sarkaria, MS, RD is a clinical dietitian specializing in weight loss with experience in diabetes, heart health, and cancer nutrition. She has an intense passion for helping people end their battles with extreme dieting, deprivation, and intense food cravings by simplifying nutrition to fit each person's individual lifestyle. Her goal is to teach people healthy weight loss to ultimately be confident, love their bodies, and most importantly, be happy.
Dr.Krisel Nagallo is a licensed naturopathic physician in Arizona where she practices integrative medicine with a focus on chronic disease management, digestive disorders, hormone imbalances, and cancer care. She provides her patients with quality tools to make the most informed decision about their well-being. Her past working experience in cancer research, the corporate food industry, and psychology training shape her unique approach using evidence-based medical solutions for the mind and body.
Afshan Shadman Ali (MSc, CDE)
Ms. Afshan Shadman Ali, MSc in Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics from SNDT Women's University, is a clinical dietitian (CD) and a certified diabetes educator (CDE) with more than 3 years of hospital experience in the field of clinical nutrition and dietetics. It is her endeavor to help people improve their lifestyle by giving them the power to make healthy choices and stay fit.
Dr. Sandesh Krishna Bhosale (BAMS, PGDHA)
Dr. Sandesh Krishna Bhosale has completed his Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery from YMT Ayurvedic Medical College (affiliated to Maharashtra University of Health Sciences) and Post Graduate Diploma in Hospital Administration from WLC college, Mumbai affiliated to University of Wigan, United Kingdom. Currently, he works as a Manager – Medical Services for NyuAyurveda.
Dr. Sarah Bennett
Dr. Sarah Bennett is a naturopathic physician licensed in the state of Arizona currently practicing at her office in Scottsdale, AZ. She received her degree from South West College of Naturopathic Medicine, did a year residency at Keystone Natural Family medicine, and received additional training for aesthetics at national laser institute.
Nina Repar is a researcher, writer, and traveler. She is insatiably curious about holistic health, food, sustainability, and the interconnections between the mind, body, and spirit. She earned her MBA in International Management from Pforzheim University, Germany, and her Ph.D. in Agricultural Sciences from Hohenheim University, Germany. Born and raised in Croatia, she has lived and worked across the globe.
Tamanna Sayed is a nutritionist and medical writer in Mumbai with five years of experience. She has completed her Bachelor of Home Science (B.Sc.) in Food Science and Nutrition from SNDT University, Mumbai. Tamanna works as a health coach at Nurture Health Solutions, a wellness company. Her areas of expertise include giving wellness advice to expectant and nursing mothers as well as people with diabetes. She previously worked as a nutritionist at Marico, one of India's leading consumer goods companies, with products in the area of health, wellness, and beauty.
Meet the Team
We are a team which is passionate about wellness and about getting facts right. So, what are you waiting for? Come, join the wellness movement with us!
Kiran Patil is the founder of Organic Facts. He has a keen interest in health, nutrition, and organic living. He completed his B.Tech and M. Tech (Chemical Engineering) from IIT Bombay and has been actively writing about health and nutrition since over past 12 years. When not working he likes to trek and do gardening.
Meenakshi Nagdeve, Co-Founder, Organic Facts is a health and wellness enthusiast and is responsible for managing it. She has completed the Nutrition And Healthy Living Cornell Certificate Program, Cornell University, US. She holds a Post Graduate Diploma in Management from IIM Bangalore and B. Tech in Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science from IIT Bombay. Prior to this, she worked for a few years in IT and Financial services. An ardent follower of naturopathy, she believes in healing with foods. In her free time, she loves to travel and taste different types of teas.
Raksha Hegde is the content director at Organic Facts and helps oversee a team of brilliant, dynamic content writers. She completed her MS in Broadcast Journalism from Boston University, US. A former business news journalist and editor, Raksha followed her passion for wellness to become a certified Yoga teacher and a wellness festival curator. She believes that learning is a life-long process; she did a certificate e-course on "Introduction to Food and Health" in 2019 from Stanford University, US.
John Staughton (BASc, BFA)
John Staughton is a traveling writer, editor, publisher and photographer with English and Integrative Biology degrees from the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana (USA). He co-founded the literary journal, Sheriff Nottingham, and now serves as the Content Director for Stain'd Arts, a non-profit based in Denver, Colorado. On a perpetual journey towards the idea of home, he uses words to educate, inspire, uplift and evolve.
Vanya Sharma handles the medical expert collaboration for Organic Facts. She is also responsible for the website’s monthly newsletter and website content and contributes to Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube regularly. A writer at heart, she joined the website while she was still pursuing her English Literature degree from IGNOU, Delhi, India. Vanya has completed the "Introduction to Food and Health" certificate program from Stanford University, US. She aims to bring unbiased and helpful information to all those seeking to make their health and lifestyle a priority.
An alumnus of St. Xavier's College, Mumbai, Ishani Bose has worked as a reporter/features writer for several leading newspapers and organizations in India. It was her love for food, health, and wellness that brought her to Organic Facts. As a Content & Culinary Outreach Specialist, she is responsible for developing and managing the website's recipe section. An avid Instagrammer who knows the latest social media trends, Ishani helps strategize and create authentic content for the website's social media platforms. When not writing or cooking, you'll find her reading, traveling, soaking herself in music, arts, and culture in every way possible. Ishani has completed an online program on "Introduction to Food and Health" by Stanford University, US.
Prachee is a content writer for Organic Facts and is responsible for writing on the latest wellness trends. A former Journalism & Media teacher, she prides herself on being able to seamlessly dabble between health, science, and technology. She has completed her Masters in Communication Studies from the University of Pune, India as well as an online course on "Introduction to Food and Health" from Stanford University, US. Prachee fancies herself to be a poet and a cook when the rare lightning of inspiration strikes.
Paromita Datta covers the latest health and wellness trends for Organic Facts. An ex-journalist who specialized in health and entertainment news, Paromita was responsible for managing a health supplement for The New Indian Express, a leading national daily in India. She has completed her post-graduation in Business Administration from the University of Rajasthan and her diploma in journalism from YMCA, Delhi. She has completed an e-course, Introduction to Food and Health, from Stanford University, US.
A journalism postgraduate from Macquarie University, Sydney, Sakina Kheriwala is a content writer at Organic Facts and an avid blogger who is passionate about health and wellness. Her blog "One in A Millennial" portrays her incomparable passion for writing, particularly on mental health. She believes that reading and writing is free and useful therapy. In her spare time, she is to be found reading books, socializing, and listening to soulful music. Sakina has completed an online e-certificate course on "Positive Psychiatry and Mental Health" from The University of Sydney, Australia.
Aneesh is the youngest member of the team who joined immediately after completing his B. Tech in Computer Science and Engineering, SRM University, Chennai. He is the one man army who manages IT development, testing, automation, SEO and data analysis at Organic Facts. In his free time, he loves to read, solve complex mathematical problems, and convert caffeine to code!
Ali works on the infographics and images on the website. He graduated from SPDT Lions Juhu College of Arts Commerce & Science, Mumbai. He worked with SITEL India prior to Organic Facts. Outside of work, Aliasgar enjoys spending time with his family and friends and loves listening to music.
Abhishek Jain has over 10+ years of management experience in international large-scale business transformation with Deloitte Consulting, US. After moving back to India, Abhishek chose the entrepreneurial route and successfully founded Wattcon Technologies, a technology & media company that owns ScienceABC.com and BijliBachao.com. Abhishek has graduated from India’s premier institute for engineering, IIT Bombay. When Abhishek is not busy with his website teams, you can find him listening to music or dabbling with photography. He has recently embraced a clean eating lifestyle and loves his salads for lunch.
Our Guest Contributors
Dr. Camilo Diaz
Dr. Camilo Diaz, the owner of Birmingham Dermatology Clinic, is the only UK based qualified dermatologist to have received expert training in the USA from top hair surgeons based around the world.
Linda is a professional chiropractor, helping her patients deal with spinal misalignment issues and chronic back pain problems at any age. She has more than eight years of writing experience and her articles have been published on popular websites such as Forbes and Very Well Health. She is also a proud member of ICA (International Chiropractors Association) and FACE (Foundation for the Advancement of Chiropractic Association). Currently, Linda is working as a writer for SleePare.com advising customers on how to find the best mattress for their body.
Dr. Gursh Bajwa
Dr. Gursh Bajwa is the principal dentist at Tamworth Dental & Implant Clinic based in Tamworth UK, serving the towns of Tamworth, Lichfield and Sutton Coldfield. Dr. Bajwa and his team strive hard to make the award-winning clinic offer professional, consistent, and friendly dental services to patients who are at the very heart of all their procedures.
Kori Anderson is a nutritionist and a personal healthy lifestyle coach. She helped hundreds of people lose weight and get used to a healthy lifestyle and diet. She is a content creator and feature writer at her website TipWeightLossDiet.
Diane Malaspina, Ph.D., is a Yoga Medicine® Therapeutic Specialist, psychologist, and consultant working in the field of health and wellness since 2001. Diane’s work is split between teaching yoga and her consulting business as a psychologist, where her specialty is implementing evidence-based strategies to reduce stress and foster healthy behaviors. Diane is currently working on a 1000 hour certification with Yoga Medicine lead by Tiffany Cruikshank, and developing therapeutic yoga and meditation programs in her community. She earned 200-hour certifications from Shiva Rea (Prana Vinyasa Flow) and YogaWorks and a 500-hour certification from Yoga Medicine, as well as hundreds of hours of advanced training in meditation, pranayama, and philosophy.
Margi Young is a renowned yoga teacher who teaches at ‘Namaste’ and ‘You and the Mat’ in the East Bay and at the ‘Jewish Community Center’ in San Francisco. In the past, she has also conducted training and workshops around the U.S. and in Brazil, Mexico, Bali, China, Costa Rica, and Italy.
Amanda DiBiase, a Diamond with doTERRA Essential Oils, is an Essential Oils Educator and teaches people how to use essential oils for everyday health challenges and how to reduce toxins through healthy living. Traveling to Guatemala on a doTERRA co-impact sourcing trip to see how Cardamom essential oil is sourced has been a highlight in her career. In her free time, she loves being outdoors and spending time with her husband, Adam, and their three children. You can follow her on Instagram for essential oil education.
Ali Katz is a certified meditation teacher and creator of the Hot Mess to Mindful Mom brand. She has been featured on ABC, NBC, FOX News, in Family Circle Magazine, Dr. Laura and many other outlets. Find out more about Ali, her work, and her books at www.hotmesstomindfulmom.com
Kaki Zell is a holistic health student studying at the Maryland University of Integrative Health. When she’s not studying, she regularly blogs for her family’s company, Ames Walker. Her passion in life is teaching people about natural remedies for treating and easing the symptoms of many different illnesses.
Dave Asprey is the creator of the widely popular Bulletproof Coffee, host of the #1 health podcast, Bulletproof Radio, and author of the New York Times bestselling book, "The Bulletproof Diet." Through his work, the Silicon Valley investor and technology entrepreneur provides information, techniques, and keys to taking control of and improving your biochemistry, your body and your mind so they work in unison.
Susan Hamilton is a food engineer and a homemade-everything type of woman. When she’s not growing her own fruits and vegetables or creating homemade recipes for her family, she likes wandering around and having different meetups with her friends. Even with a hectic schedule, she loves writing and editing articles for HomeRemedyBook, where she shares her knowledge about following a healthy lifestyle.
Karen Boyle is the owner of Amchara Health Retreats (Somerset, UK & Malta) which has been voted ‘Top 10 wellbeing retreats in the world-2017' by CNTraveller.com & ‘Top 10 retreats for health in the world-2016' by Telegraph.co.uk. Amchara Health Retreats have been featured in Vogue, Independent, Porter, Marie Claire, Health & Fitness, Channel 4, and many more. Follow her on Instagram @amcharahealth
Francesca Jaques is the author and editor of www.hairday.co.uk, beauty therapist by day and writer by night. She reviews every hair product available, finding the best of the best and giving you all the tips possible to make life easier for you. For hairstyle ideas, tips and reviews, you can find them on her Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter.
Sarah Peterson is the content director at Perfect Keto. With a mission to help as many people as possible achieve optimal health and well-being, Sarah shares all her knowledge with readers around the world who look forward to embrace ketogenic diet.
Charles B. Hardy, the founder of pawpawlover.com, is an original vet with tremendous love for dogs and an owner of a little golden retriever. He aspires to share his experience with anyone who cares about dogs.
An alumnus of St. Xavier's College, Mumbai, Komal is a quirky writer. She loves to add a touch of creativity to everything she does. She has a diverse background in teaching biology, working as an analyst, and freelancing as a content writer. There are only two ways she can express herself, first is words and second is dance.
Samreedhi Goel (PG Diploma, BSc (Nutrition))
Samreedhi Goel is a nutritionist and fitness expert who completed BSc Nutrition and P.G Diploma in Nutrition and food technology from SNDT Mumbai. She runs her exercise studio, Size Wise, since 1999. She has also been the Consulting Nutritionist for Kellogg's India for two years. Ms. Goel has been a fitness columnist and has been interviewed by leading publications like DNA, Times of India, Mumbai Mirror, Sunday Mid Day, Complete Wellbeing, Savvy, Femina, Vogue, Good Housekeeping, and Emirates evening post, India Abroad (USA). She is currently a columnist for Vogue India. Her mantra has always been "A good diet should build you, not break you" and firmly belongs to the anti-starvation brigade.
Robin Miller is the author of the best-selling cookbook ‘Quick Fix Meals’. She has a Master’s Degree in Food and Nutrition from New York University. She loves to blog about food on her website Robin Miller Cooks.
Ashima Goyal Siraj
Ashima believes food is nourishment for body, mind, and soul. That eating well doesn't require fancy cooking, but mindfulness and practice. She shares simple vegan and vegetarian recipes infused with lots of love on her food blog - My Weekend Kitchen. With every recipe she publishes, she sends out a little hope that it will inspire someone to cook more often at home.Insta/Facebook
Clare Major, the founder of Seasoned Cookery School located in UK, aspires to create many long lasting memories for all visitors who experience her wide range of cookery courses and events. Seasoned was founded in 2010 and has chefs from across the UK, who have different culinary specialities.
Jack Thompson is a self-appointed barbecue aficionado and lover of all vegan foods. He lives with his wife, Sara, their two children, and the three dogs that he did not pick out but now loves, in New Jersey. He is an ex-office workaholic who now uses his entrepreneur side to practice his culinary skills and relax with his family.
Hi! I am Jui. If you love tea, vegetarian food and lots of giggles, we probably work on the same wavelength. Testing software code and food recipes are what make me happy. I have a food blog and I mostly re-create long lost Maharashtrian traditional recipes and also develop recipes that are vegan and vegetarian.
Information published on Organic Facts has been obtained through secondary sources which are believed to be reliable. Organic Information Services Pvt Ltd, therefore, does not assume any liability of the accuracy, usefulness, completeness, currency, and adequacy of the information.
Further, the information on this website is intended to be general summary information only. Organic Information Services Pvt Ltd does not warrant the actions taken by visitors based on this information.
The inclusion of examples, names, links and other references in the articles on the website is purely on the basis of their relevance to the information. Moreover, the website also has links to various other websites. Organic Information Services Pvt Ltd cannot be held responsible for any information provided on these links.
Organic Facts also provides a list of organic food stores in various countries. Organic Information Services Pvt Ltd is not affiliated with any of these stores and cannot be held responsible for the products and services provided by these stores.
Organic Facts also provides health benefits and nutritional value of various foods and home remedies for the general awareness of the readers. These home remedies, health benefits, and nutritional values refer to the food items in general irrespective of their mode of production unless mentioned specifically.
This page was last updated on January 11, 2020.