The health benefits of watercress include providing nutrition, boosting immunity, cancer prevention, and thyroid support. These health benefits begin with a single serving of watercress as a dietary supplement.
Table of Contents
- What is Watercress?
- Watercress Nutrition Facts
- Health Benefits of Watercress
- Prevent Breast Cancer
- Prevent Colorectal Cancer
- Improve Functioning of Thyroid Gland
- Improve Cardiovascular Health
- Improve Bone Health
- Rich in Calcium Content
- Rich in Folate Content
- Act as Antidepressant
- Prevent Stroke
- Helps in Pregnancy
- Prevent Cognitive Disorders
- Rich in Vitamin C Content
- Improve Brain Health
- Reduce Oxidative Damage to Blood Cells
- Improve Eyesight
- Prevent Common Cold
- Relieve from Pediatric Asthma
What is Watercress?
Watercress is a cruciferous plant grown for centuries as a mineral rich green leafy vegetable.1 A brassica family member of plant genus, Watercress has the health benefits of other brassica’s.1 This health benefit is obtained from the high content of vitamins and minerals and the antioxidant properties of the phytochemical structure of watercress plant.1
Watercress Nutrition Facts
Watercress contains more vitamin C than an orange, more calcium than milk, more iron than spinach and more folate than bananas.1 Each phytonutrient is where the health benefits of watercress are contained. These phytonutrients and their benefits will now be discussed. Watercress contains vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, iron, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus which are all required for a healthy body.
Health Benefits of Watercress
With so many nutrients in abundant quantities, watercress in a great choice for inclusion in diet. The health benefits of watercress are mentioned below.
Watercress as Anti-carcinogenic
Prevent Breast Cancer
Watercress has such effective cancer preventive phytonutrient that even eating a single salad shows increase of molecules into the body’s circulatory system that may prevent and stop the recurrence of breast cancer.2 Based on a study those who ate at least 80 grams of watercress on a daily basis were shown to have beneficial results.2
Another study on the anti carcinogenic abilities of watercress showed great benefit when added to the diet as a cancer preventive for stomach, lung, as well as, breast cancer.3
Watercress is shown to be effective in reversing DNA damage to white blood cells.2 This study of cigarette smokers who participated in eating 85g of fresh watercress daily had a 22.9 percent decrease in cellular structure damage.3 Also, the cells were more able to protect themselves as shown when hydrogen peroxide was introduced into the cells and the damage was 9.4 percent lower than expected.3
These studies suggest that the phytochemical compound that gives watercress and other cruciferous vegetables is what gives them their bitter flavor.3 This phytochemical stimulates the bodies’ natural defense promoting cellular protection. The same study states that the anti-carcinogenic benefits may be from the antioxidants lutein and beta carotene since these were determined to be at elevated levels in the blood stream of participants.3 These studies conclude that there are benefits in the addition of watercress to the everyday diet including preventing the recurrence of breast cancer as well as preventing the onset.3
Watercress is rich in vitamin C that may also be beneficial in reducing oxidative stress caused by cancer in high concentrations and preventing tumors.2 Folate also is associated with low risk of cancer. Daily increased consumption of folate over a ten year period by women showed results of a 22% reduction in breast cancers.2 The increased daily consumption of folate did not pose any health risks and proved most beneficial against estrogen negative receptor breast cancer tumors rather than estrogen positive receptor tumors.2
Prevent Colorectal Cancer
Although studies have shown mixed results, many have concluded that the dietary intake of folate as part of a daily diet may act as a preventive against colorectal cancer.7 This benefit was seen more often when folate was taken for 15 years or more.7
Improve Functioning of Thyroid Gland
Watercress is a member of the brassica family of cruciferous vegetable which has shown beneficial effect in thyroid health.8 Watercress like other brassica’s may work by reducing thyroid hormone production and are most beneficial when eaten raw.8 Watercress may also be lightly steamed so it doesn’t lose any of its nutritional value.8
Improve Cardiovascular Health
In addition to the nutrient content of watercress, it also has many secondary metabolites that may help lower risk of various chronic diseases.6 Cruciferous plants like watercress are shown to be beneficial in lowering LDL-Cholesterol which reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis and other chronic heart diseases.6 Watercress contains vitamin C which works as an antioxidant and helps in reducing heart tissue damage caused by oxidative stress.2 Vitamin C is active in the process of embryonic cells developing into cardiac myocytes and improving heart health.
Improve Bone Health
Studies show that inclusion of calcium rich food such as watercress works in reducing risk of osteoporosis.5 Calcium works in repairing and building the bones by causing an increase in the production of osteoblasts, the cells responsible for this beneficial activity.5 This benefit of calcium is essential for the aging population, though the youthful population may also benefit if their lifestyle is sedentary, which promotes bone density loss.5Watercress is also a good source of folate which plays a direct role as an interactive nutrient in maintaining bone density.6 Post-menopausal women may also benefit from folate in their diet as a preventive against osteoporosis.6
Rich in Calcium Content
Many researchers agree that calcium through dietary intake is necessary and perhaps most beneficial in the prevention of many diseases such as cardiovascular, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension. 6 Calcium through food sources such as watercress is also shown to be safe against adverse cardiac effects which is a concern for some that take high dose supplements.6 If supplemental calcium of 500 mg is added to the daily diet, it is enough for most women to boost their daily food intake.6 Though amounts up to 1000 mg daily are taken by some, risks of calcium deposits and resulting health problems may occur.6 Overall food sources remain the best way to maintain healthy levels of calcium in the body.6
Many other studies have shown that the benefit of regular consumption of watercress may be from secondary metabolites and other phyto nutrients which repair cellular damage and work effectively as a preventive against certain cancers, cardiovascular, and thyroid disease.6
Rich in Folate Content
Folate is an essential nutrient that plays a role in preventing birth defects and in daily health maintenance.4 Folate levels are affected by alcohol consumption.1 A diet rich in folate containing food such as watercress and other cruciferous vegetables may work as a preventive and even resolve certain health conditions.4
Intake of folate containing food such as watercress may help in reducing the risk of depression, stroke, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, osteoporosis, cognitive decline and neural tube deficiency in babies.
Act as Antidepressant
Low folate levels may be caused by a lack of dietary intake or excessive alcohol intake.1 A meta-analysis of 19 studies, inclusive of 15,315 participants, showed that low folate level increases the risk of depression. Folate works with the neurotransmitters, pathways of the central nervous system, affecting production of neurochemicals such as serotonin.1 With depression affecting a significant percentage of the world population, the addition of food with high folate content such as watercress is an important dietary supplement in reducing the risk of this chronic disease.1
A cross sectional study of 662 adults showed beneficial results of foods fortified with folate in preventing stroke.2 If not eating fortified foods, large amounts of folate containing foods such as watercress would need to be consumed in order to reach the same level of beneficial nutrient status and health benefit.2
Helps in Pregnancy
Folate is important to the development of a healthy embryo as it plays an important role in a normal cellular division.5 Additionally, consumption of at least 400mcg of folate daily by pregnant women is shown to reduce the incidence of neural tube deficiency.5 Watercress with its high content of folate may help in reducing the risk of these ailments.
Prevent Cognitive Disorders
Folate may act as a preventive against cognitive decline. Results of a study, of males aged 50 -70 years of age, showed that participants given 800 mcg of folate daily were shown to have a beneficial effect on cognition and verbal fluency.6 An inclusion of watercress which has a high folate content may protect against the cognitive decline.
Rich in Vitamin C Content
Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin which indicates that it is excreted through urinary excretion on a daily basis.2 Studies have shown both, dietary and supplemental daily intake may have benefits in preventing diseases and treating many physiological systems, when vitamin C is found in high concentration in the blood.2 Water cress contains higher amount of vitamin C than an orange and is beneficial to providing and maintaining blood levels of vitamin C necessary for the body. 1
Intake of vitamin C rich food such as watercress is beneficial in reducing the risk of blood cell damage and a common cold.
Improve Brain Health
Consumption of vitamin C rich foods may be beneficial in preventing cognition changes as related to Alzheimer’s and aging and protecting and repairing brain tissues.2 It also works to reduce bleeding when stroke has occurred.2 Other results have shown that those having sustained traumatic head injury often have lower blood concentrations of vitamin C.2 These studies suggest that daily intake of vitamin C rich food such as watercress may benefit in preventing damage and improving the outcomes of brain injury.2 In fact, high concentration of vitamin C may play a role in neuron building activity.2
Reduce Oxidative Damage to Blood Cells
Research study suggests that vitamin C along with vitamin E is effective in reducing oxidative damage to red blood cells.2 Though the study is based on supplements, it is also suggested that consumption of foods such as watercress with these nutrients may be beneficial to health.2
A European study suggests that vitamin C might be effective in reducing the risk of cataract development.3 An inclusion of watercress with a good amount of vitamin C may be beneficial in protection against cataract.
Prevent Common Cold
Vitamin C rich food is an effective remedy for common cold.3 A study on this immune protective ability of vitamin C shows that consuming food rich in vitamin C may reduce the risk of a cold by 66 %.2 Watercress is a good source of vitamin C.
Relieve from Pediatric Asthma
A study on children suffering from asthma showed results of significantly increased forced expiratory volume expiratory (FEV) with vitamin C of at least 0.2g daily.4 These results varied with each child’s history of mold and dampness exposure.4 Those having no exposure with 37% increase and those with exposure, see a 21% increase of FEV per second.4 Intake of food such as watercress may provide relief from pediatric asthma.
Watercress is a beneficial food that is a strong preventive medicine when eaten daily. Doing so affects many body systems, repairs cellular damage, and prevents cardiovascular, cancer and thyroid imbalance with the nutritional value it imparts.5,7 The nutrients in watercress are also beneficial to women in the post-menopausal years to improve cognition and reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Water cress could be consumed by those wanting to prevent as well as treat these types of conditions and is recommended as a powerful “super food.”1
1 Rachel Sixsmith. Watercress industry defends its traditions. Horticulture Week. 2009:23.
3Ordman AR. Vitamin C twice a day enhances health
5Anonymous. Best way to get your calcium. Harvard Health Publications. Harvard Health Letter. 2012; 37:3-http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletters/harvard_health_letter/2012/October
6Manchali and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Functional Foods (Crucial facts about health benefits of popular cruciferous vegetables. Journal of Functional Foods, 2012; 4(1):94-106). www.newsrx.com/newsletters/Drug…/2012…11/160511201212807W.ht.
7The Daily Telegraph. Watercress can help prevent breast cancer. Sept.14, 2010. Edition.1
8 Fitzgerald J. The daily Telegraph. This week: how to nurture your thyroid.
//global.factiva.com.ezproxy2.library.drexel.edu/ha/default.aspxefits: 2Anonymous. Best way to get your calcium. Harvard Health Publications. Harvard Health Letter. 2012; 37:3