If you’ve ever eaten a Caesar salad, then you are familiar with Romaine lettuce. This widely cultivated and hugely popular variety of lettuce has many health benefits that include weight loss, improved heart health, prevention of bone loss, skin care, boosted immunity, and improved digestion and circulation.
What is Romaine Lettuce?
Romaine lettuce is scientifically known as Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia and is native to the Mediterranean and North African region. The lettuce itself grows in a rather tall head of thick, durable leaves, with a solid rib down the middle of each leaf. The white or clear fluid that is released from this rib when the lettuce is cut is believed to give the lettuce its characteristic flavor – mildly bitter and earthy. Some other varieties of salad greens are significantly bitter, and may also be nutrient-poor, such as iceberg lettuce, but that isn’t the case with the Romaine variety!t
For at least 5,000 years, Romaine lettuce has held a special place in cultural and culinary practices in certain parts of the world, dating back to the ancient Egyptians. It is still commonly used in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisine but has become a staple vegetable in other parts of the world, particularly Europe and North America.
|Serving Size :|
|Total lipid (fat) [g]||0.3|
|Carbohydrate, by difference [g]||3.29|
|Fiber, total dietary [g]||2.1|
|Sugars, total including NLEA [g]||1.19|
|Glucose (dextrose) [g]||0.39|
|Calcium, Ca [mg]||33|
|Iron, Fe [mg]||0.97|
|Magnesium, Mg [mg]||14|
|Phosphorus, P [mg]||30|
|Potassium, K [mg]||247|
|Sodium, Na [mg]||8|
|Zinc, Zn [mg]||0.23|
|Copper, Cu [mg]||0.05|
|Manganese, Mn [mg]||0.16|
|Selenium, Se [µg]||0.4|
|Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid [mg]||4|
|Pantothenic acid [mg]||0.14|
|Vitamin B-6 [mg]||0.07|
|Folate, total [µg]||136|
|Folate, food [µg]||136|
|Folate, DFE [µg]||136|
|Choline, total [mg]||9.9|
|Vitamin A, RAE [µg]||436|
|Carotene, beta [µg]||5226|
|Vitamin A, IU [IU]||8710|
|Lutein + zeaxanthin [µg]||2312|
|Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) [mg]||0.13|
|Tocopherol, gamma [mg]||0.36|
|Tocopherol, delta [mg]||0.01|
|Tocotrienol, alpha [mg]||0.04|
|Vitamin K (phylloquinone) [µg]||102.5|
|Fatty acids, total saturated [g]||0.04|
|Fatty acids, total monounsaturated [g]||0.01|
|Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated [g]||0.16|
|Aspartic acid [g]||0.14|
|Glutamic acid [g]||0.18|
|Sources include : USDA|
Romaine Lettuce Nutrition
Romaine lettuce is a rich source of fiber and has very few calories, only 8 in a one-cup serving. In terms of vitamins, a cup of Romaine lettuce delivers more than 50% of your daily requirement for vitamin A, as well as significant levels of vitamin K and vitamin C. The moderate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, molybdenum, copper, potassium, folate, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, calcium, and manganese in Romaine lettuce also support the body in various ways. This variety of lettuce is also an impressive source of amino acids, which the body requires for normal growth and development. For those worried about Romaine’s impact on their weight, there is only a negligible amount of fats in these leaves.
Romaine Lettuce Health Benefits
The inexpensive nature and broad availability of Romaine lettuce are further enhanced by its impressive nutritional content and potential health benefits. So, let’s discuss these benefits in detail below.
Rich in Antioxidants & Vitamin A & C
The powerful antioxidants vitamin A and C in this variety of lettuce helps in promoting the healthy functioning of the body’s many different mechanisms. They also help in fighting free radicals and thereby preventing chronic diseases. Vitamin A and C are also responsible to reduce the oxidative stress in the body and prevent inflammation.
Prevents Bone Loss
This variety of lettuce has a rich supply of minerals, ranging from copper and iron to magnesium, manganese, and phosphorus, all of which can help increase bone mineral density. It is also high in vitamin K, which can optimize bone growth and prevent bone loss. As you age, it is important not to become deficient in any of these critical minerals, or your risk for osteoporosis will increase significantly.
Improves Heart Health
There is a decent amount of iron found in the leaves of Romaine lettuce, which helps improve circulation throughout the body and prevents the risk of numerous heart conditions. Iron is a key ingredient in red blood cell production, which allows hemoglobin to carry more oxygen and nutrients to the parts of the body that need it most. This can increase energy levels and also speed the healing/repair process.
The beta-carotene, vitamin A and C, and other beneficial nutrients in this lettuce can directly impact the health of the eye. Beta-carotene breaks down into vitamin A, which combats the oxidative stress on the retina, thus preventing the development of macular degeneration and slowing the onset of cataracts. It can also prevent blindness or vision loss as you age.
Prevents Signs of Aging
The high levels of vitamin A and vitamin C found in romaine lettuce mean that this salad vegetable can help boost the health of your skin. Vitamin C is an integral part of collagen production, which is required to build all new cells and tissues throughout the body. Vitamin A also acts as an antioxidant, helping to neutralize free radicals and reduce their impact on healthy cells. This can minimize the appearance of wrinkles, age spots, and blemishes, while also improving the elasticity of the skin, helping your skin’s natural glow and preventing aging. Romaine lettuce also helps in preventing the onset of acne.
Boosts Immune System
Vitamin C is known for its impact on the immune system, as it can drive the production of white blood cells, the body’s first line of defense, while also acting as an antioxidant and lowering level of oxidative stress. However, vitamin A and other immune-boosting minerals in Romaine lettuce also help to keep the body and stomach clear of infectious pathogens.
Various studies have looked into the cancer-fighting powers of Romaine lettuce, and it is believed that that folate, which is present in this green leafy vegetable, may decrease the risk of several forms of cancer. According to the National Institute of Health, people who take recommended amounts of folic acid before cancer develops might decrease the cancer risk.
While there are no formal antioxidants in Romaine lettuce, the other nutrients, such as carotenoids, fill similar roles in the body and may help in preventing breast, ovarian, bladder, oral, lung, prostate, and skin cancers. A team of Iranian researchers published a study on ‘Carotenoids and Cancer: Biological Functions’, in the Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences Journal, which states that carotenoids could reduce the risk of different disorders such as many forms of cancer. The preclinical studies demonstrated that the carotenoids have effective anti-tumor effects and help in the regulation of cell growth and cell cycle progression, along with anti-oxidant activity
Beneficial during Pregnancy
Romaine lettuce, being rich in folate, helps prevent birth defects and ensures a safe and healthy pregnancy. It also prevents neural tube defects and promotes the healthy development of the fetus’s heart and face.
With a very low number of calories and a relatively high amount of fiber, Romaine lettuce is ideal for filling you up without compromising your caloric goals, if you’re trying to lose weight. The other nutrients in this lettuce, including many of the B vitamins, can stimulate the metabolism to increase fat burning and lower levels of fat deposition, which can also help if you’re trying to shed some extra pounds.
Dietary fiber does more than filling you up; it also helps to move food through your digestive tracts and promotes healthy digestion. By stimulating peristaltic motion, the fiber in Romaine lettuce will help to relieve signs and symptoms of constipation, bloating and cramping, while also lowering your risk for more serious gastrointestinal issues, such as hemorrhoids or gastric ulcers.
Lowers Cholesterol Levels
With a low level of omega-3 fatty acids, research has shown that this variety of lettuce can improve cholesterol levels. Omega-3 fatty acids help to lower LDL cholesterol and increase HDL cholesterol, thus allowing less oxidized cholesterol from binding to the walls of arteries and blood vessels. This will notably reduce your risk of atherosclerosis, heart attacks, and strokes.
Romaine lettuce boasts a huge amount of vitamin K, which is an important factor in blood clotting within the body. When we are wounded, this vitamin signals endothelial growth factors that can speed the closing of a wound and reduces the pain and inflammation, while also defending against any outside infections.
Promotes Muscle Growth
The unique range of amino acids found in Romaine lettuce means that this common leafy green can help with growth and development throughout the body. Amino acids are the true building blocks of the body and are needed for everything from cells and blood vessels to bones and organ systems. Romaine lettuce can deliver a good supply of these raw materials, including glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine, and lysine.
Regulates Blood Pressure
The moderate level of potassium found in Romaine lettuce makes it a good food for blood pressure and heart health. Potassium is a powerful electrolyte and vasodilator, meaning that it can relax tension in blood vessels and arteries, slowing down rates of damage to those tissues and reducing strain on the cardiovascular system as a whole.
Low levels of magnesium can help regulate neurotransmitter production and induce the release of serotonin, a feel-good compound that is known to relax the body and mind, thus helping people get to sleep. Those who suffer from insomnia or regularly interrupted sleep can have a small salad before bed and hopefully get a full night’s rest!
Uses of Romaine Lettuce
While this variety of lettuce is most commonly seen as a salad green, the unusual nature and composition of this lettuce make it more versatile.
- It can be juiced to produce a nutrient-rich drink, and can also be added to soups and other hot dishes.
- Unlike many forms of lettuce, Romaine is notably resistant to heat and doesn’t become overly soggy or limp. It can, therefore, be braised or roasted with savory dishes, or simply added to a sandwich for a bit of crunch.
- Romaine lettuce is also used in taco salad, Cobb salad, and avocado salad wraps.
How to Prepare Romaine Lettuce?
Romaine lettuce can be eaten in many different ways, but if you want to use the entire head of lettuce before it wilts or becomes too bitter to enjoy, it is necessary to prepare it properly. This all begins by choosing the right head of Romaine lettuce, which should be light to dark green, with a minimum of white or wilted leaves on the outer edges.
Step 1: Remove any white or wilted leaves from the head of lettuce.
Step 2: Wash the entire head very carefully, being sure to rinse between all the leaves, as this is where dirt, residue, and insects could potentially be found.
Step 3: Remove the leaves from the main stalk and dry them between paper towels.
Step 4: Tear or cut the leaves to your desired length.
Step 5: Store them in the refrigerator in a perforated bag, allowing the lettuce to breathe, which will prevent it from wilting.
Note: Only add salad dressing or oils to the lettuce directly before eating, or it will cause the leaves to wilt and go bad much more rapidly.
Word of Caution: Although packed with great nutrients and offering a hoard of benefits, this leafy green may have some serious side effects. It has been observed that romaine lettuce might be related to a widespread surge in the spread of E. coli bacteria and other food-borne illnesses, which is why a certain level of precaution is advised. It is best to wash romaine lettuce thoroughly and properly before consumption.