Holy basil is an aromatic shrub native to India. Within Ayurveda, the Hindi name for holy basil is Tulsi, also known as “the incomparable one”, “mother medicine of nature”, or “the queen of herbs”. It grows in West Africa, Australia, and few Middle Eastern countries. It is used in Ayurvedic medicine as an “adaptogen” to counter stress. Moving on to its health benefits, they include oral care, relief from respiratory disorders, fever, asthma, lung disorders, heart diseases, and stress.
What is Holy Basil (Tulsi)?
Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) or tulsi is a powerful herb that has been used in Ayurveda and other traditional medical treatments in India for thousands of years. The small holy basil shrub has tiny lavender flowers and is considered a sacred plant in India. It was believed that the holy basil leaves had potent powers to flush out toxins from the body. In India, people have tulsi water (water which has tulsi leaves soaked overnight) or chew on a tulsi leaf to improve overall health. Several health products are available with tulsi extracts to help treat cold, cough, and flu. 
Holy basil is beneficial for our health, primarily due to the unique composition of its essential oil, containing eugenol, camphor, flavonoids, nerol, and various terpenes. It can help relieve acne, asthma, inflammation, respiratory issues, lower your chances of heart diseases, and atherosclerosis. 
Holy basil differs from the basil used in Italian dishes or Thai basil used in curries in Southeast Asia. Holy basil or tulsi has a pungent and bitter taste and it is not usually used for cooking. It is however used to make tulsi tea which has adaptogenic properties.
Watch Video: 7 Amazing Benefits Of Tulsi
Holy Basil Nutrition
According to FoodData Central, a 100-gram serving of holy basil is highly nutritious. It fetches you a good amount of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin C. It also contains iron, sodium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and vitamin B6, A, and K. 
Holy Basil Health Benefits
The holy basil leaves are versatile and are used for a variety of culinary preparations. Also, they offer a plethora of health benefits. Let us look at them in detail.
The miraculous healing properties of holy basil come mainly from its essential oils and the phytonutrients in it. Holy basil has antibiotic, germicidal, fungicidal, and disinfectant properties. It is very effective in protecting our body from all sorts of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. The disinfectant, germicidal, and fungicidal properties present in tulsi help in fighting the pathogens and heal the resulting fever. It is an old practice in India to have a decoction of tulsi leaves and flowers if anyone is suffering from a fever. 
Relieves Symptoms of Respiratory Disorders
Tulsi, along with curing viral, bacterial, and fungal infections of the respiratory system, gives miraculous relief from congestion due to the presence of components like camphene, eugenol, and cineole in its essential oils. It is very effective in curing chronic and acute respiratory disorders including bronchitis and asthma. Moreover, it also heals the damage caused to the lungs due to smoking.  
Prevents Heart Diseases
A 2017 review published in the Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine journal throws light on the use of tulsi for chronic cardiovascular diseases. Holy basil contains vitamin C and other antioxidants such as eugenol, which protect the heart from the harmful effects of free radicals. Additionally, eugenol is very beneficial in reducing cholesterol levels in the blood. 
Vitamin C and other antioxidants in holy basil minimize the stress caused by oxidants. A study published in the Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine says that tulsi soothes the nerves, lowers blood pressure, reduces inflammation, and thus reduces stress. Potassium, in Tulsi, also reduces blood pressure-related stress by replacing sodium and loosening the tensed blood vessels. 
Tulsi is an excellent mouth freshener and an oral disinfectant. Holy basil destroys germs and bacteria in the mouth and this effect lasts all day. It also aids in providing relief from mouth ulcers. A study shows that chewing on tulsi leaves is an effective, safe, and economical option for maintaining good oral health. 
Holy basil destroys the bacteria responsible for dental cavities, plaque, tartar, and bad breath. It also protects the teeth. It has astringent properties that make the gums hold the teeth tighter, thereby preventing them from falling. However, tulsi also has certain compounds like mercury, which has rich germicidal properties. It can harm the teeth if kept in direct contact for too long. Therefore, it is advised to avoid chewing these leaves. 
Reduces Risk of Kidney Stones
Tulsi, being a detoxifier and a mild diuretic, helps to reduce the uric acid level in the body. It also helps clean out the kidneys through increased frequency of urination. Acetic acid and certain components in Tulsi essential oil facilitate the dissolution of the stones. The analgesic properties of tulsi also help in bearing the pain of kidney stones passing the body. 
A headache caused due to a migraine, sinus pressure, cough, and cold or high blood pressure can be effectively controlled by the use of a single tulsi serving. Camphene, eugenol, cineol, carvacrol, and methyl-chavicol, in holy basil, have excellent analgesic, sedative, anti-congestive, and disinfectant properties. 
Holy basil is one of the most powerful natural sources for building immunity. It protects against nearly all infections from viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. 
Tulsi is very effective in providing relief for eye infections like conjunctivitis, boils, and other disorders. It is especially effective for viral, bacterial, or fungal infections. It also soothes eye inflammation and reduces stress. Regular consumption can protect your eyes from the damage done by free radicals, such as cataracts, macular degeneration, glaucoma, vision defects, and ophthalmia. These protective properties are due to the high antioxidant content of its essential oils, vitamin A, and vitamin C. 
Uses of Holy Basil
- Holy Basil Tea: You can use holy basil as a relaxant, typically in the form of a tea. The tea also acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. Holy basil tea can be used to clear up congestion and respiratory conditions, while also boosting the strength of your immune system. It is often used to detoxify the body.
- Skincare: A skincare regime is beneficial with holy basil. Apply the paste of its leaves on an infected area if there’s a skin disease. You can also consume Tulsi leaves and manage to keep your skin free from all infections. Rubbing holy basil leaves or its extracted oil on the body keeps mosquitoes and other insects away. It helps cure skin disorders both internally and externally, without any side effects. Moreover, in Ayurveda, holy basil leaves are considered a tonic to retain youthful vigor and avoid premature aging.  
- Eye care: To use, soak some basil leaves in water for about a couple of hours and then use this water to wash your eyes.
Where to Buy Holy Basil?
You can buy holy basil from a nearby health store or a specialist Asian grocer. In fact, basil is grown on every continent and is one of the most common herbs in the world. If you cannot find fresh basil, look for tulsi tea, preferably organic. This should be available at health food stores. Alternatively, you can also get it online.
How to eat holy basil or tulsi leaves?
You can consume tulsi leaves in various ways. You can chew them raw. However, don’t do this frequently or take a high quantity. Holy basil tea is perhaps the most common and popular use of this herb. You can brew the dried leaves or use a dried leaf powder. You simply put a teaspoon of the powder in one cup of boiling water and allow it to steep for 5-6 minutes. The flavor is strong, but its health effects are undeniable.
Should I take holy basil at night or morning?
To reduce cravings, lower sugar levels, and improve cognitive functioning, it is advised to consume holy basil in the morning.
However, for those who want better sleep and an alternative to a late-night kick of caffeine, consuming holy basil at night makes more sense. Depending on the situation, you can consume basil at any time of the day.
How to Grow Holy Basil?
Those who want to use holy basil should try to grow the plant. Avoid overwatering the basil plants. Basil is a shrub and if allowed, it can grow rapidly. Removing the mature leaves several times every week is essential to encourage fresh leaf growth.
Historical Significance of Holy Basil (Tulsi) in India
Holy basil is believed to have multiple medicinal properties. It is worshiped and highly valued in Hindusim. Many Hindus believe it is very holy, worshiping the plant twice a day. They light lamps near the plant in the morning and evening. It was and still is, believed to protect the whole family from evil and bring good luck.
Word of caution: All reviewed studies concluded favorable clinical effects with minimal or no side effects. However, it is advisable to avoid holy basil if you are pregnant, lactating, or trying to conceive. It is recommended that you speak to your doctor before including holy basil into your diet.